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When Does Voltage Optimization Not Work?

23 November 2023

When it comes to energy efficiency, voltage optimisation technology stands as a promising method of reducing electricity consumption and associated costs.

This technique involves regulating the incoming electrical supply voltage from the national grid to match the optimal requirements of electrical equipment and appliances. By delivering the correct voltage, voltage optimisation can effectively minimise energy losses and enhance overall efficiency.

But is it always the best investment for everyone?

That's what we're here to find out, so we'll need to break the subject down and uncover the facts.

Let's start with the basics and go from there...

How Does Voltage Optimisation (VO) Work?

At its core, VO employs specially designed transformers that 'step down' the incoming voltage from the grid to a more suitable level. These transformers, known as voltage optimisers, are typically installed in series with the main power lines entering a building. As electricity flows through the optimiser, it undergoes a controlled reduction in voltage, ensuring that each connected device receives the precise voltage it needs to operate efficiently.

Discover: What Is Voltage Optimisation

Voltage Optimisation VO Work

What Are The Advantages?

Now let's take a look at the key benefits of a voltage optimiser to see why they are so helpful:

  • Reduced Energy Consumption. Voltage optimisation can significantly lower energy consumption by minimising energy losses associated with excessive voltage. Studies have shown that a voltage reduction of even 5% can yield average energy savings of 10% or higher.
  • Lower Energy Costs. By reducing energy consumption, voltage optimisation directly translates into lower electricity bills. This can be particularly beneficial for businesses with large energy demands, such as industrial facilities and commercial buildings.
  • Improved Power Quality. Proper voltage regulation contributes to improved quality, reducing harmonic distortion and electromagnetic interference. Voltage harmonisation and balancing phase voltages, in turn, leads to enhanced equipment performance, extended lifespan, and reduced maintenance costs.
  • Reduced Equipment Wear & Tear. Voltage fluctuations can cause stress and premature wear on electronic equipment. Voltage optimisation helps to mitigate these fluctuations, ensuring that equipment operates within its optimal voltage range, extending its lifespan and reducing maintenance needs.

Please note that a voltage optimiser is not quite the same as a voltage regulator or voltage stabiliser! We won't go into too much detail here, but here's a quick overview of voltage regulators:

These devices work to maintain a constant output voltage level regardless of fluctuations or variations in the input voltage. They ensure a steady and consistent supply voltage to devices or electronic systems by adjusting the voltage as needed. Voltage regulators are commonly used in various applications to provide a stable voltage output, such as in power supplies for sensitive electronics or in automatic voltage regulators for electrical generators.

Who Benefits From Voltage Optimisation?

Voltage optimisers are suitable for a wide range of applications, including:

  • Commercial Buildings. Businesses of all sizes can benefit from voltage optimisation, particularly those with high energy consumption and sophisticated electrical systems.
  • Industrial Facilities. Industrial plants, where reactive power demand and equipment sensitivity are often high, can significantly reduce energy consumption and operating costs through voltage optimisation.
  • Data centres. VO plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal power quality for data centres, ensuring efficient operation and data integrity.
  • Residential Properties. While the impact may be less pronounced, homeowners can also experience energy savings and better power quality by installing a voltage optimiser in their homes.

Learn more: Is Voltage Optimisation Worth It?

Benefits Of Voltage Optimisation 2

A Deeper Understanding Of Voltage Optimisation

If we want to discover when VO isn't the best choice, we must dig a little deeper to understand the implications.

So, at risk of covering the same material, we'll lay out the bare facts to help you get a handle on the subject...

  • VO primarily aims to regulate and adjust the incoming voltage to match the requirements of electrical appliances. The UK's standard mains voltage is 230V, yet the actual voltage can be much higher, and many devices operate optimally at lower voltages. Higher voltage can lead to increased energy consumption, wear and tear on equipment, and unnecessary costs.

Now let's explore the different methods used.

Types Of Voltage Optimisation Methods:

  • Static VO. This method involves fixed-reduction transformers installed at the entry point of a building's electricity supply. These transformers step down the supply voltage to a pre-determined level, ensuring appliances receive the required voltage. By maintaining a consistent lower voltage, it reduces energy wastage and prolongs the lifespan of devices.
  • Dynamic VO. Unlike static methods, dynamic optimisation systems continuously monitor the voltage levels in real-time. These intelligent systems adapt the voltage according to the fluctuating demands of connected devices. By dynamically adjusting voltage levels, they ensure devices receive optimal voltage, reducing energy consumption without compromising functionality.
  • Electronic VO. Employing sophisticated electronic controllers, this method fine-tunes and precisely regulates voltage levels. These controllers automatically adjust and optimise the nominal voltage, offering a tailored approach for different devices and environments. They mitigate overvoltage situations and ensure energy-efficient operation across various electrical systems.

So, now we've taken on board some more information about VO, let's revisit the subject of potential savings.

Energy Savings Through Voltage Optimisation

VO methods significantly decrease energy usage by ensuring devices receive only the necessary voltage. Appliances operating at their optimum voltage consume less power, resulting in reduced energy bills.

Lowering voltage to match device requirements cuts energy usage and reduces wear and tear on appliances, leading to longer lifespans and reduced maintenance and repair costs.

By using less energy, VO contributes to a smaller carbon footprint, aligning with sustainability goals and potentially qualifying for green energy initiatives and incentives.

These VO methods offer multifaceted benefits, from immediate cost savings to prolonged equipment life and environmental advantages. Adopting these methods presents a smart and sustainable approach towards efficient energy use in the UK.


It all depends on the main type of electrical equipment you use. For example, do you have mostly voltage-dependent or voltage-independent loads?

If you're unsure of what this means, don't worry; we'll dive into this right now...

enegry saving through voltage optimisation

Electrical Equipment: Voltage-Dependent Loads

Voltage-dependent loads are electrical devices whose energy consumption varies directly in proportion to the voltage applied to them. This means that as the voltage increases, the power consumption of the load also increases, and vice versa. Examples of voltage-dependent loads include:

  • Incandescent lighting. These traditional lights rely on a filament that heats up and emits light when electricity flows through it. The brightness of the lamp is directly related to the voltage applied, making it a voltage-dependent load.
Incandescent lighting
  • Electric motors. Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, and their power consumption is influenced by the voltage. A higher voltage increases consumption and torque while operating equipment at a lower voltage reduces power and torque.
Electric motors
  • Resistive heating elements. Resistive loads generate heat through electrical resistance, and their power consumption is directly proportional to the square of the voltage. Doubling the voltage quadruples the power consumption.
Resistive heating elements

Voltage-Independent Loads

In contrast, voltage-independent loads exhibit a constant power consumption regardless of the applied voltage within their operating range. This means that changes in voltage do not directly affect the power consumption of these devices. Examples of voltage-independent loads include:

  • Electronic ballasts In Discharge Lighting. These electronic circuits regulate the electrical supply to fluorescent lighting, maintaining a consistent light output despite fluctuations in voltage.
Electronic ballasts In Discharge Lighting
  • LED lighting with integrated drivers. These lights incorporate electronic drivers that convert AC power to the appropriate DC voltage for the LEDs, ensuring a stable light output regardless of voltage variations.

Check out: LED Lighting Upgrade / Retrofit

LED lighting with integrated drivers
  • Variable speed drives (VSDs). Commonly used with electric motors, VSDs control the motor's speed by adjusting the frequency of the power supply. This allows the motor to operate at its optimal efficiency, minimising power consumption.
Variable speed drives VSDs

Implications For Voltage Optimisation

The distinction between voltage-dependent and voltage-independent loads is crucial for implementing effective VO strategies. VO aims to reduce energy consumption by supplying electronic equipment with the optimal voltage level. For voltage-dependent loads, this involves lowering the voltage to the minimum required for proper operation. This energy reduction in voltage directly translates into reduced power consumption and energy costs.

On the other hand, VO has minimal impact on voltage-independent loads since their consumption remains constant within their operating range. While there may be some indirect benefits, such as reduced equipment wear and tear due to voltage stabilisation, the primary energy savings from VO stem from voltage-dependent loads.

Understanding The Mix

In real-world scenarios, most electrical systems comprise a mix of voltage-dependent and voltage-independent loads. The proportion of each type of load significantly influences the overall energy savings potential from VO. A system with a higher percentage of voltage-dependent loads is likely to achieve significant savings compared to a system with predominantly voltage-independent loads.

Understanding the distinction between voltage-dependent and voltage-independent loads is essential for optimising voltage levels and maximising savings. By tailoring VO strategies to the specific mix of loads within a system, some businesses and individuals can reap the benefits of this effective energy-saving technique.

So, When Does VO Not Work?

While it's generally effective in improving energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption, there are scenarios where its benefits might be limited or where it won't work optimally. Here are some circumstances where voltage optimisation might not be as effective:

  • Incompatibility with Equipment. Certain sensitive or specialised equipment might not function optimally with a VO system. For instance, devices that require a specific voltage range or have stringent power requirements may not perform well with VO equipment that alters the voltage levels.
  • Already Optimised Voltages. In some cases, the voltage supplied by the grid may already be close to the optimal level for the efficient operation of devices. If the voltage is already within an acceptable range, further optimisation may not yield significant energy savings or operational improvements.
  • Variable or Fluctuating Loads. VO systems work best with stable loads and consistent voltage demands. If the electrical load fluctuates significantly or varies widely, the system might struggle to maintain the optimised supply, leading to inconsistent results.
  • High Harmonic Distortion. If the electrical network has high levels of harmonic distortion, it can interfere with the effectiveness of VO systems. Harmonics are currents or voltages that are multiples of the fundamental frequency and can disrupt the proper functioning of voltage optimisation devices, affecting their performance.
  • Faulty or Inadequate Installation. Improper installation or incorrect sizing of VO equipment can lead to inefficiencies or even cause problems in the electrical system. If the system is not configured correctly for the specific electrical setup, it might not work as intended or could even cause damage to the connected devices.
  • Old or Outdated Equipment. In some cases, older appliances or devices may not benefit as much from voltage optimisation. They might not be designed to take advantage of optimised voltage levels, or their internal components might be less efficient, limiting the potential energy savings.
  • Specific Regulatory Constraints. There might be regulatory or technical limitations in certain regions or industries that restrict the implementation or effectiveness of VO systems.
  • Complex Electrical Setups. In industrial or commercial settings with complex electrical configurations, VO might be challenging to implement effectively across all equipment due to the diverse nature of loop ds and voltage requirements.

In essence, while voltage optimisation can offer considerable benefits in terms of energy efficiency and cost savings in many situations, its effectiveness depends on various factors related to the specific electrical system and the devices connected to it. Consulting with a qualified electrical engineer or technician can help assess whether VO is suitable and effective for a particular scenario.

Voltage Optimisation: A Smart Way To Save Energy?

VO emerges as a valuable tool for improved efficiency and cost-saving strategies, but only in the right circumstances.

As a leading specialist in this area, Powervolt Team can offer sound advice on the subject. With our guidance, you can discover when VO doesn't work and determine whether it's the best investment for you.

How do we go about this?

The procedure goes something like this...

Energy Audit And Assessment

The journey towards determining the necessity of VO starts with an in-depth energy audit. Electrical engineers meticulously analyse the business's energy consumption patterns, examining voltage levels across various devices and systems.

Voltage Fluctuation Analysis

Understanding the voltage levels supplied to the business premises is crucial. Engineers conduct measurements to evaluate the consistency of the electricity supply. They track fluctuations and power dips (often caused by lightning strikes), noting instances of overvoltage or undervoltage that might adversely affect equipment efficiency.

Device Compatibility And Efficiency

An engineer examines the compatibility of electrical devices with the supplied voltage. They evaluate whether devices are operating optimally or if they show signs of strain due to inconsistent voltage levels. Observing device efficiency and potential wear and tear provides valuable insights.

Cost-Benefit Analysis

Assessing the financial aspect is vital. Engineers conduct a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis to determine potential savings through voltage optimisation. They calculate potential savings against the cost of implementing voltage optimisation solutions.

Environmental Considerations

Beyond cost, engineers consider the environmental impact. Voltage optimisation reduces energy consumption and minimises a business’s carbon emissions. This aligns with sustainability goals and might lead to eligibility for green energy initiatives or incentives.

Client Consultation And Proposal

Based on the findings, the engineer consults with the business stakeholders. They present a detailed report outlining the benefits of voltage optimisation. This proposal includes potential cost savings, efficiency improvements, and the overall impact on the business.

Does VO Work For You?

In essence, determining the necessity of voltage optimisation requires a holistic approach. Electrical engineers, like our experts at Powervolt Team, scrutinise energy consumption patterns, device compatibility, financial implications, and environmental aspects. It’s a meticulous process aimed at presenting a comprehensive case for implementing voltage optimisation solutions tailored to the specific needs of the energy consumer.

Voltage optimisation isn’t merely about reducing energy consumption; it's a strategic step towards cost efficiency, sustainability, and maximising the lifespan of electrical equipment. Collaborating with electrical engineers for a thorough assessment ensures businesses make informed decisions towards a more energy-efficient future - but it has to work for you, or it's not a wise investment!

By optimising the input voltage, this technique effectively reduces the amount of energy consumed, improves power quality, and extends the lifespan of electrical equipment. As more businesses and individuals embrace sustainable practices, voltage optimisation will undoubtedly play an increasingly significant role in minimising energy consumption and promoting a more efficient energy landscape.

This blog will help you understand the subject better, but if you need further assistance, Powervolt Team is ready with the answer.


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